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Nhan đề: The impact of road infrastructure development on communities and urban form changes in cities of emerging countries: A case study of Danang, Vietnam.
Tác giả: Won, Sehyung
Từ khoá: Infrastructure
Năm xuất bản: 2018
Tùng thư/Số báo cáo: Creative Commons;Tr. 1 - 352
Tóm tắt: New road infrastructure development is known to gear local economic development, which forms, expands and changes the urban environment. However, the direct effects of road development on its immediate surroundings and local residents remain understudied. In order to create urban environments mindful of the conditions of Asian developing countries, which are rapidly urbanizing, data-based empirical studies that investigate the impact of road developments on the community and urban form need to be pursued. This study focused on the palpable urban changes in Danang, Vietnam, where recent expansion of infrastructure and rapid urbanization has been evident. The 40m wide Nguyen Tat Thanh road, opened in 2003, which stretches along 12km had been studied in particular. To understand the effects of road development on the human and physical aspects, a total of 460 building owners and residents living in the vicinity of the road were interviewed in-depth regarding the socioeconomic changes before and after the road development. Spatial user activities were also investigated. Moreover, five projects that emerged after the road development were analyzed according to its project process, urban form and design attributes. Last, stakeholder interviews of local university professors, civil servants, and private developers were conducted. The first chapter aims to understand the overall effects of road development in the immediate neighborhoods and its residents. To better understand the relationship between infrastructure and urban change in developing countries, we conducted in-depth interviews of 400 property owners living in one of the following sites: 1) an area directly abutting on the new road, 2) an area abutting on an existing road but is away from the new road, and 3) an area inside an urban block which is disconnected from all types of vehicular roads. The results showed that road development took place along with a sizable number of urban changes over time, including housing types, building densities and uses, income level, commuting distances, and the type of occupation. The changes were more striking in the area abutting the new road. This was because 46% of the residents were migrants that settled in close proximity to the road after its development. Relatively well-off migrants settled down and capitalized on land rents by accommodating a variety of retail uses compared to other areas away from the road. However, the area inside the block also experienced small-scaled, parcel-level adaptive reuse of the built environment by the original residents who maintained the livable environment of the residential neighborhood. The second chapter reveals how road development impacts the residents’ mobility and changes the urban landscape of the existing areas. To investigate this relationship in detail, approximately 460 residents, including migrants who moved to the area after the road development and the original residents who live near the road, were interviewed. The survey was designed to identify the travel routes, mode of transportation, and location of jobs, shopping, leisure, education, and religious activities of residents before and after the road development. The research found that the original residents endured longer commutes than the migrants, which was associated with a greater dispersion of jobs after the road development. Compared to the original residents, migrants often lived in a newly available parcel close to the new road and formed a mixed-use community with a good jobs-housing balance. However, migrants traveled farther to non-job-related destinations. For the use of urban space, the original residents attempted to improve the quality of their daily lives through small-scale transformations of privately owned outdoor spaces, which were often shared by their neighbors and other family members. Migrants largely contributed to the formation of commercialized streets that were scattered with fairly large accommodations and high-end residential buildings. The third chapter focuses on the new urban landscape and morphological changes. In this chapter, five built or on-going projects near the road development had been investigated in terms of the project implementation process, building type, size and use, population density, and spatial use. As a result, the research revealed that conventional urban forms had slowly evolved to better accommodate the public purposes of the local area and that shaded paths, either intentionally designed or formed by chance, were instrumental in forming vital streetscapes and public use. On the other hand, large-scale master plans were crudely misused as means for attracting real estate investment in the efforts to globally brand the city, and finalized plans were often modified unpredictably which not only delayed projects but led to the overall decline of urban space quality. The research suggested a continuous effort towards understanding user behaviors in the neighborhood- and local-level planning, and to reflect such information into spatial designs. Furthermore, to ensure efficient project implementation, the roles of the public and private sector need to be better clarified in large-scale urban development projects. The implications of the study are as follows. The effects of a development need to be accurately forecasted to ensure quality urban space and fair distribution of development benefits in a developing country where various urban projects take place at the same time. Spatial planning and design should be based on community needs where user behavior is considered at the neighborhood- or local-level. Furthermore, to ensure the success of a foreign capital invested urban project, the public sector needs to establish a clear vision and clarify the roles of the public and private sector.
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